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    THE HEAT TREATMENT OF
     RUBY AND SAPPHIRE
     (1st Edition)

    THE HEAT TREATMENT OF
    RUBY AND SAPPHIRE
    (2nd Edition)

    THE HEAT TREATMENT OF
    RUBY AND SAPPHIRE
    (3rd Edition)

    FLUX ENHANCED
    RUBIES & SAPPHIRES

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    RUBIES & SAPPHIRES

    MOGOK - VALLEY OF
    RUBIES & SAPPHIRES

    MOGOK - GEMS & MINES
    OF MOGOK

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    OF RUBIES & SAPPHIRES

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    MAP OF MOGOK

    POSTER: GEMS & MINES
    OF MOGOK

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    OF MOGOK GEMS

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Flux-Enhanced Rubies & Sapphires
by Ted Themelis

This book is the product of self-supported and painstaking research work of hundreds of experiments performed by the author over the last 20 years.This book is designed to inform you the various flux-additves used in the heat-treatment processes of rubies and sapphires carefully documented and presented in a concise and authoritative manner intended for the layman. Flux-Enhanced Rubies & Sapphires provides actual facts and observations not available anywhere else. This is the first and best reference on this topic.

Flux-Enhanced Rubies & Sapphires is an account of the author's first-hand experiences in heat-treating rubies-sapphires with flux and additives in his thermo-chemical laboratory.

CAT# B-120 List US$65
(shipping included worldwide)

REPRINITED - AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPPING


  • Market price US$ 65 (shipping included worldwide)
  • Format:Softcover,178x250mm
  • 48 full color pp.
  • Over 130 color photos
  • Publisher: A&T Pub. (USA)
  • Pub. Date: January 2004
  • ISBN: 0-940965-42-9

Features

This book provides a better understanding of the effect of flux on rubies and sapphires and their associated enhancement of clarity, color, luster and general overall appearance. Details on the most commonly used fluxes and the methodologies applied to the heat treatment processes are revealed.

Packed with over 110 color photos offering invaluable visual support to the carefully documented text; stones before and after flux treatment, equipment, inclusions, characteristics and other features.

This publication has been designed to educate the reader on the flux process applied to rubies and sapphires from the practical stand point. Hopefully this work will prevent misunderstandings, misconceptions and myths about flux-enhanced gemstones. Instead, a feast of accurate facts which are sure to assist jewelers, gem traders, gemologists and just about everyone in the gem and jewelry business. To avoid costly mistakes, formulate disclosure policy and maintain good customer relations. You've come to the right place.


Selected Reviews

" The book describes the processes involved in the heat treatment of rubies and sapphires. This is very nearly a step-by-step recipe for the treatment as all stages are illustrated on each side of the text which occupies the centre of each page. The all-colour illustrations and the strong red page headers make the book seem quite aggressive and the effect is memorable.
The text is, too, or should be as this is probably the best account so far of this type of treatment. Several authorities are cited and the dangers of doing it yourself are emphasized in a general disclaimer. There is a glossary and a short bibliography. The final part of the text deals with identifying treatment of this kind: disclosure and market value are also briefly discussed. Questions and answers cover several of the areas which gemologists could well study. M.O'D" -Journal of Gemmology, Vol. 2 , April 2004


"In this well illustrated, 48-page soft cover, one of world's pioneering heat treaters of ruby and sapphire, Ted Themelis, ‘lifts the lid' on some of the basics of this colour and clarity enhancement process. The information offered by Mr. Themelis is most welcome--particularly as it emphasises the complex role that fluxes of various type play in the heat treatment (flux enhancement) regime for ruby and sapphire.
Following a couple of introductory pages that cover the historical background of heat treating corundum, and questions and answers with respect to flux treatment of ruby and sapphire, the author's first major topic of discussion is the role flux plays in enhancing the appearance of a heat treated corundum. Six pages of text are then devoted to brief descriptions of the various fluxes that are and have been used in this heat treatment process. A useful description of how ruby and sapphire are prepared for heat treatment then precedes an informative description of the heat treatment process. Next, how acid is used to remove tell-tale flux glass residue from filled or partly filled surface-reaching fractures is described and illustrated in some detail. This is important information, for this commercially important step in the heat treatment process is rarely described in the gemological literature. The little-appreciated topic of silica contamination of heat treated corundum follows, and possible causes for this potentially troublesome contamination are suggested. By far the major part of the text of this book (pages 22 – 37) have been devoted to well illustrated descriptions of the features of flux-enhanced rubies and sapphires from Mong Hsu and Mogok (Myanmar), Vietnam, Sri Lanka, and several East Africa countries. Some illustrated comments on the features of synthetic flux grown corundum complete this part of the book. Gemmologists and gemology students will find the author's detailed illustrated description of the fissure filling process in corundum (p. 26) most educational. Useful descriptions of flux glass infillings of surface cavities, and surface alterations due to the flux based heat treatment are then provided. The text of this very informative small book is completed by short descriptions of how to grade flux filled surface-reaching fractures, the stability of flux-enhanced rubies and sapphires, the comparative market value of heat treated v unheat treated rubies and sapphires, problems and recommendations associated with disclosure of this treatment and finally a Summary & Conclusion that specifies the identifying features of this treatment.

As a book 'designed to educate the reader on flux process applied to rubies and sapphires from the practical standpoint', this book certainly succeeds; for its content is as unique and it is useful. Thank you Ted for ‘lifting the lid' on this long used and occasionally contentions value enhancement process for ruby and sapphire. Ed." -Australian Gemmologist, Vol. 22, Number 2, April-June 2003


Table of Contents

Background, questions & answers..........................................   4-5
Introduction, cavities & fissures ................................................  6-7
Fluxes and additives ....................................................................  8-13
Preparation for heat treatment  ..................................................14-15
Heat treatment  process............................................................. 16-17
Acid cleaning process ...............................................................  18-19
Contamination .............................................................................. 20-21
Features in flux-enhanced Mong-Hsu rubies.........................  22-27
Features in flux-enhanced Mogok Rubies & sapphires.........28-31
Features in selected flux-enhanced rubies & sapphires...... 32-36
Features in synthetic flux-grown corundums..........................  37
Surface cavity fillings...................................................................  38-39
Surface abnormalities ...............................................................  40-41
Grading surface-reaching fissures.........................................   42
Stability of the flux-enhanced rubies & sapphires..............     43
Market Value.................................................................................. 44
Disclosure..................................................................................... 45
Summary and conclusions ....................................................... 46-47
Glossary and selected references............................................ 48

 


 
   
 
 
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